An event characterized by sudden, severe worsening of symptoms or an increase in disease severity1
Tiny air sacs in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from the blood takes place
A type of medication that aims to slow the scarring and stiffening of lungs to slow disease progression2
Arterial blood gas test
A test that shows how well the lungs are working by measuring how much oxygen and carbon dioxide is in the blood. This test requires that a small volume of blood be drawn from the patient3
Techniques that involve breathing in a certain way to control breathlessness and strengthen your lungs
A procedure in which a bronchoscope (a medical instrument like a tube) is passed through the mouth or nose into the lung and fluid is squirted into a small part of the lung and then collected for examination4
Refers to the heart, and blood vessels
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
A type of chronic disease that typically worsens over time and is characterized by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema are older terms used for COPD5
A medical study that investigates how safe and effective a new therapy or technique is for treating a certain disease
A disease or condition that occurs at the same time as another disease or condition
Therapies used alongside conventional treatments that help treat symptoms and may improve overall physical and mental wellbeing
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device
A device to deliver compressed air to improve sleep in people with obstructive sleep apnoea6
Coronary artery/heart disease
A disease where a waxy substance (plaque) builds up inside the coronary arteries, which supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle7
A lung condition where the air sacs within the lungs (alveoli) become damaged5
Extreme weariness resulting from exertion or illness
Where inflamed tissue is replaced with scar tissue, making it thicken and become stiffer4
A symptom where the ends of the fingers become wider and rounder8
Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD/GORD)
A digestive disease where stomach acid moves up out of the stomach and irritates the lining of the food pipe (oesophagus)9
A physician specializing in the management of diseases of the digestive system
A burning sensation in the chest, which can spread to the throat, along with a sour taste in the mouth
High-resolution computed tomography scan (HRCT)
A test that uses a type of X-ray that produces multiple, detailed images of areas inside the body4
Rapid and uncontrolled breathing
Of unknown cause
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
A disease where there is progressive scarring or thickening of the lungs without a known cause4
The surgical removal of cells or tissue samples from the lung for examination by a pathologist10
The lung tissue becomes thickened and stiff
An operation to replace a patient’s diseased lungs with lungs from a donor
A technique that helps to reduce stress and anxiety by helping to understand and manage your emotions
Listening to and playing music as a therapy which aims to ease the symptoms of those living with IPF
A small plastic tube or prongs that fit in the nostrils to deliver supplementary oxygen11
Obstructive sleep apnea
A sleep disorder characterised by breathing that repeatedly stops and starts during sleep12
A specialist who helps someone recover or live with their symptoms more easily
A machine that removes other gases from the air to provide oxygen for oxygen therapy11
Administration of oxygen as a medical intervention11
Therapy that provides relief from symptoms to help patients live more comfortably with their disease13
Power of attorney
A formal documentation when someone else is given the responsibility to manage your affairs and make certain decisions on your behalf
The worsening of a disease/condition over time
Refers to the lungs
Pulmonary function test
A group of tests used to check how well the lungs take in and release air and how well they supply oxygen to the rest of the body14
A type of high blood pressure that affects the blood vessels to the lungs and the right side of the heart15
An education and exercise program designed to improve the quality of life for people with lung conditions16
A physician specialised in lung problems (also known as a respirologist)
A test used to monitor oxygen levels in a patient’s blood, usually with a non-invasive sensor11
Pursed lip breathing
A breathing technique to help control breathlessness and reduce anxiety17
A disease that affects only a small percentage of the population
Something that is associated with an increased risk of disease or infection
A product that gives protection against a specific infection
- Juarez M, Chan AL, Norris AG, et al. Acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis – a review of current and novel pharmacotherapies. J Thorac Dis. 2015;7(3):499–519.
- Raghu G, Rochwerg B, Zhang Y, et al. An official ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT Clinical Practice Guideline: Treatment of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. An Update of the 2011 Clinical Practice Guideline. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015;192(2):e3–e19.
- British Lung Foundation. Blood Gas Test. Available at: https://www.blf.org.uk/support-for-you/breathing-tests/blood-gas-test/. Accessed 1 February 2019.
- Meltzer EB, Noble PW. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2008;3:8.
- British Lung Foundation. What is COPD. Available at: https://www.blf.org.uk/support-for-you/copd/what-is-it/. Accessed 1 February 2019.
- British Lung Foundation. CPAP machines for OSA. Available at: https://www.blf.org.uk/support-for-you/obstructive-sleep-apnoea-osa/cpap/. Accessed 1 February 2019.
- National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Coronary Heart Disease. Available at: https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/coronary-heart-disease/. Accessed 7 March 2019.
- British Lung Foundation. Symptoms of pulmonary fibrosis. Available at: https://www.blf.org.uk/support-for-you/pulmonary-fibrosis/symptoms/. Accessed 1 February 2019.
- National Health Service. Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). Available at: https://www.nhsinform.scot/illnesses-and-conditions/stomach-liver-and-ga.... Accessed 7 March 2019.
- John Hopkins Medicine. Lung Biopsy. Available at: https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/healthlibrary/test_procedures/pulmonary/.... Accessed 7 March 2019.
- American Thoracic Society. Patient Education: Oxygen Therapy. Available at: https://www.thoracic.org/patients/patient-resources/resources/oxygen-the.... Accessed 7 March 2019.
- British Lung Foundation. Obstructive Sleep Apnoea. Available at: https://www.blf.org.uk/support-for-you/obstructive-sleep-apnoea-osa/what.... Accessed 7 March 2019.
- National Health Service. End of life care. Available at: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/end-of-life-care/. Accessed 7 March 2019.
- British Lung Foundation. Tests to measure your breathing. Available at: https://www.blf.org.uk/support-for-you/breathing-tests/tests-to-measure-.... Accessed 1 February 2019.
- National Health Service. Pulmonary hypertension. Available at: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/pulmonary-hypertension/. Accessed 7 March 2019.
- Raghu G, Rochwerg B, Zhang Y, et al. An official ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT Clinical Practice Guideline: Treatment of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;183(6):788–824.
Borge CR, Hagen KB, Mengshoel AM, et al. Effects of controlled breathing exercises and respiratory muscle training in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: results from evaluating the quality of evidence in systematic reviews. BMC Pulm Med. 2014;14:184.